Introduction to the School of Physics:

Here you will find numerous articles that deal with the Shroud from the standpoint of photography, three dimensional qualities of the Shroud image, and image formation theories. There were numerous optical tests performed on the Shroud in 1978 by the 24 scientists comprising The Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) including spectroscopy, infrared thermography, scanning photography from infrared to ultraviolet, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray radiography and others.

Questions and Topics for Students
  • Students may consider doing a paper on the 30 th Anniversary of STURP (1978-2008) including a discussion of what led up to this landmark study, the tests performed and their results.
  • Consider a paper on comparing the results of STURP versus the claims of Walter McCrone who stands in complete opposition to what was determined by STURP.
  • Consider a comparison of optical forms of research versus chemistry or direct particle analysis. Why are there conflicting results? What happens when science is in conflict? How is it resolved? Compare the Vinland Map in this discussion (See School of Debate).
  • How does the results of the STURP project line up with the claim that the Shroud is simply a “cunningly crafted” Medieval artwork?

Featured Content
Petrus Soons from 2008 Ohio Conference: The Shroud as a hologram
Shroud Report Interview with Dr. John Jackson on image formation theory.
What caused the image? (from Shroud Encounter)
The begining of science (from Shroud Encounter)
The Shroud of Turin Research Project (from Shroud Encounter)
3D Image (from Shroud Encounter)
Dr. John and Rebecca Jackson, 1996
Mark Antonacci, 2002
Shroud Report Interview with Pete Schumacher on the 3-D image.




Complete list of STURP members from

Published STURP papers from
(These are mostly found in peer reviewed journals and due to copyright cannot be reproduced or linked to here. They may be obtained through your school library or through or by purchasing a copy direct from the publisher.)


STURP Conclusions from

Summary of the Shroud of Turin Research Project Findings from

Mapping of Research Test-Point Areas on the Shroud of Turin by Barrie Schwortz

A Review of Scientific Methods Applied to the Shroud ofTurin (38 pgs) by Ray Rogers and Anna Arnoldi. From

Articles on Image Formation Theory and Qualities of the Image

 Image Formation Theory by Russ Breault

Summary of Image Formation Theories: If it is not the work of an artist, then how was the image formed?

Image Properties: What could be observed about image properties by looking at damage from the 1532 fire? From

Pixelization Quality of the Shroud Image: Optical engineer, Kevin Moran discusses the phenomenon of how the Shroud image appears to be comprised of pixels, similar to a TV screen. Hence, darker and lighter shades are not the result of more or less "paint" but rather a greater or lesser concentration of dehydrated fibers, ie. Pixelization. From

“Image Information on the Shroud of Turin by the Attenuation of Radiation in the Air” by Bernard A. Power:

Conclusions of Walter McCrone: Walter McCrone is the lone voice of dissent regarding the cause of the image and the apparent bloodstains. He alleges it to be a painted forgery. The 24 scientists of the STURP project indicate it is blood from actual wounds and the image is not the work of an artist.

Articles on the 3-D Quality of the Image  

From the Photo to the Three Dimensional by Aldo Guerreschi who has perfected an established photographic enhancement technique to clearly visualize the dimensional characteristics encoded in the Shroud image. From

The Photo-Relief Technique by Aldo Guerreschi. This is a continuation of the above article and is important for understanding the three dimensional nature of the Shroud image. From

Does the Shroud contain three dimensional data? Pete Schumacher, inventor of the VP-8 Image Analyzer first used in 1977 on the Shroud reveals that the shroud image acts like a spatial data base, similar to a topographical map. From

More on the VP-8 and the 3-D Image from

The Second Face Image:
The Shroud appears to have a faint face image on the reverse side of the cloth yet no image causing substance in between the threads further confounding the mystery of the image and what may have been its genesis. From ABC News

Second Face Image: A brief discussion with Paul Danielson of the Institute of Physics in London regarding this discovery. From ABC News

The following list of articles are from Italian scientist, Giulio Fanti and other researchers: About Giulio Fanti: Read his Curriculum Vitae

G. Fanti, et al. (24 authors): Evidences for Testing Hypotheses about the Body Image Formation of The Turin Shroud, the Third Dallas International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Dallas, Texas, September 8-11, 2005, 



G. Fanti, F. Lattarulo, O. Scheuermann: Body Image Formation Hypotheses Based on Corona Discharge, the Third Dallas International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Dallas, Texas, September 8-11, 2005,


 G. Fanti, R. Maggiolo: The double superficiality of the frontal image of the Turin Shroud, Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, volume 6, issue 6, pages 491- 503,


G. Fanti: "Numerical Analysis of the Mutual Radiation Effects of Compex Surfaces", 2nd Italy – Canada Workshop on: 3D Digital Imaging and Modeling – Applications of Heritage, Industry, Medicine and Land, Padova, May 17-18 2005,



C. Brillante, G. Fanti, E. Marinelli: Bloodstains characteristics to be considered in laboratory reconstruction of the Turin Shroud, IV Symposium Scientifique International sur le Linceul de Turin, Paris, 25-26 April 2002,


K. Moran, G. Fanti: Does the Shroud body image show any physical evidence of Resurrection? , IV Symposium Scientifique International sur le Linceul de Turin, Paris, 25-26 April 2002,


G. Fanti, et al.: Experimental Results of Sunlight Acting on Linen Fabrics after a report on Nathan Wilson’s “Shadow Theory Poster, the Third Dallas International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Dallas, Texas, September 8-11, 2005,



G. Fanti, M. Moroni: Comparison of Luminance Between Face of Turin Shroud Man and Experimental Results, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, vol. 46-2, pp. 142-154, March/April 2002. Internet:


G. Fanti, E. Marinelli: A study of the front and back body enveloping based on 3D information, Dallas International Conference on the Shroud of Turin, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., 25-28 October 2001.


G. Fanti, E. Marinelli A. Cagnazzo: Computerized anthropometric analysis of the Man of the Turin Shroud, Int. Research Conference “Multi disciplinary Investigation of an Enigma, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 18-20 June 1999, internet:


G. Fanti: A review of 3d characteristics of the Turin Shroud body image Workshop Italy-Canada on 3D Digital Imaging and Modeling Applications of: heritage, industry, medicine & land, Padova, April 3-4 2001


G. Fanti, E. Marinelli: A Probabilistic Model to Quantify the Results of the Research on the Turin Shroud, III Congresso Internazionale di Studi sulla Sindone Torino, 5-7 Giugno 1998;


G. Fanti, E. Marinelli: Results of a Probabilistic Model Applied to the Research carried out on the Turin Shroud, III Congresso Internazionale di Studi sulla Sindone, Torino, 5-7 Giugno 1998. Engl. vers.,


G. Fanti et al.: Proposal for the Contruction of a Calibrated Multiresolution Atlas of the Turin Shroud, Oct. 2002, Internet:

There are many more Journal articles listed in the Library in the Articles section. Many Journal articles cannot be linked here due to copyright restrictions. Scientific journal articles can be obtained from your school library or can be purchased from the publisher. Most schools subscribe to a journal sharing service where these articles can be accessed without a fee such as:

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