Introduction to the School of Botany:

Here you will find many articles that focus on the data revealed through the pollen removed from the Shroud by criminologist Max Frei in 1978. These samples were later examined by Israeli botanists, Avinoam Danin and Uri Baruch both affiliated with the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Also discussed are a variety of flower images that can be visually discerned on the cloth by the trained eye. These two streams of data seem to confirm the Shroud’s historical trail through modern day Turkey and its probable origination in Israel.



Questions and Topics for Students
  • Do a paper on the botany of the Shroud and how it may support the Shroud’s known and presumed history.
  • How can the evidence from botany be evaluated against its alleged Medieval carbon age.
  • As part of an overall discussion of epistemology as it relates to numerous streams of data that appear to be in conflict. Epistemology asks the question, “How do we know what we know?”
  • The Vinland Map would be another example of science in conflict (see School of Debate).

Featured Content
The Flora of the Shroud of Turin by Avinoam Danin
Shroud Report Interview with Paul Maloney, Research Archaeologist
Pollen Trail Confirms The Historical Trail: Work of Dr. Avinoam Danin, Israeli Botanist
Dr. Alan Whanger shows botanical evidence for Shroud's origination in Israel


Floral Images and Pollen Grains on the Shroud of Turin: An Interview with Alan Whanger and Avinoam Danin. From
Dr. Alan Whanger analyzing pollen.

Where did The Shroud of Turin Originate? A Botanical Quest by Avinoam Danin. From

Botanical Evidence Indicates "Shroud Of Turin" Originated In Jerusalem Area Before 8th Century, From Science Daily

The Origin of the Shroud of Turin from the Near East as Evidenced Plant Images and Pollen Grains, by Avinoam Danin. From

Floristic Indicators for the Origin of the Shroud of Turin
by Avinoam Danin and Uri Baruch: – (Complete paper, 8 pages) From Image of chrysanthemum on Shroud.


A Summary of the work of Dr. Alan and Mary Whanger, From Duke University Medical School Alumni Association

A comparison of pollen on the Shroud and the Sudarion of Oviedo

Pollen on the Shroud is Native to the Middle East and Turkey

The Chrysanthemum Image on the Shroud of Turin and the Sinai Icon

There are many more Journal articles listed in the Library in the Articles section. Many Journal articles cannot be linked here due to copyright restrictions. Scientific journal articles can be obtained from your school library or can be purchased from the publisher. Most schools subscribe to a journal sharing service where these articles can be accessed without a fee such as:

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